• Neural Correlates of Delay Discounting in the Light of Brain Imaging and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: What We Know and What Is Missed
    by Andrea Stefano Moro on 29 Marzo 2023

    In decision making, the subjective value of a reward declines with the delay to its receipt, describing a hyperbolic function. Although this phenomenon, referred to as delay discounting (DD), has been extensively characterized and reported in many animal species, still, little is known about the neuronal processes that support it. Here, after drawing a comprehensive portrait, we consider the latest neuroimaging and lesion studies, the outcomes of which often appear contradictory among comparable...

  • TMS-Induced Modulation of EEG Functional Connectivity Is Affected by the E-Field Orientation
    by Giulia Pieramico on 29 Marzo 2023

    Coregistration of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) allows non-invasive probing of brain circuits: TMS induces brain activation due to the generation of a properly oriented focused electric field (E-field) using a coil placed on a selected position over the scalp, while EEG captures the effects of the stimulation on brain electrical activity. Moreover, the combination of these techniques allows the investigation of several brain properties, including brain...

  • Functional Activity in the Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Therapy for Patients with Depression: A Meta-Analysis
    by Yongyan Deng on 29 Marzo 2023

    Depression is a long-lasting mental disorder that affects more than 264 million people worldwide. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be a safe and effective choice for the treatment of depression. Functional neuroimaging provides unique insights into the neuropsychiatric effects of antidepressant TMS. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the functional activity of brain regions caused by TMS for depression. A literature search was conducted from inception to 5 January 2022. Studies...

  • Transcranial Stimulation for the Treatment of Stimulant Use Disorder
    by Amber N Edinoff on 28 Marzo 2023

    The increasing prevalence of stimulant use disorder (StUD) involving methamphetamine and cocaine has been a growing healthcare concern in the United States. Cocaine usage is associated with atherosclerosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and arrhythmias. Furthermore, approximately one of every four MIs is cocaine-induced among patients aged 18 to 45. Methamphetamine use has been associated with nerve terminal damage in the dopaminergic system resulting in impaired motor function, cognitive...

  • Non-Pharmacological Treatments in Lewy Body Disease: A Systematic Review
    by Lucia Guidi on 28 Marzo 2023

    CONCLUSION: This review highlights the efficacy of some evidence-based rehabilitation studies in LBD; however, further randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed to provide definitive recommendations.

  • Optimizing transcranial magnetic stimulation for spaceflight applications
    by S M Romanella on 28 Marzo 2023

    As space agencies aim to reach and build installations on Mars, the crews will face longer exposure to extreme environments that may compromise their health and performance. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a painless non-invasive brain stimulation technique that could support space exploration in multiple ways. However, changes in brain morphology previously observed after long-term space missions may impact the efficacy of this intervention. We investigated how to optimize TMS for...

  • Nerve injury disrupts temporal processing in the spinal cord dorsal horn through alterations in PV + interneurons
    by Genelle Rankin on 30 Marzo 2023

    How mechanical allodynia following nerve injury is encoded in patterns of neural activity in the spinal cord dorsal horn (DH) is not known. We addressed this using the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain and in vivo electrophysiological recordings. Surprisingly, despite dramatic behavioral over-reactivity to mechanical stimuli following nerve injury, an overall increase in sensitivity or reactivity of DH neurons was not observed. We did, however, observe a marked decrease in correlated...

  • Sex differences in the role of parabrachial in nociception and pain in awake mice
    by Jesse Smith on 30 Marzo 2023

    The parabrachial nuclear complex is a nexus for aversion, and for the sensory and affective components of pain perception. We have previously shown that, during chronic pain, parabrachial neurons in anesthetized rodents have amplified activity. We report a method to record from parabrachial neurons of behaving, head-restrained mice, while applying reproducible noxious stimuli. We find that both spontaneous and evoked activity are considerably higher in awake animals. We show that these neurons...

  • Resolvin D1/N-formyl peptide receptor 2 ameliorates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through the activation of IL-10/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in mice
    by Cun-Jin Su on 30 Marzo 2023

    INTRODUCTION: Paclitaxel is a chemotherapy drug that is commonly used to treat cancer, but it can cause paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP) as a side effect. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) has been shown to be effective in promoting the resolution of inflammation and chronic pain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of RvD1 on PINP and its underlying mechanisms in mice.

  • The Role of miRNAs in Neuropathic Pain
    by Martina Morchio on 29 Marzo 2023

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition affecting around 8% of the adult population in the UK. The pathophysiology is complex and involves a wide range of processes, including alteration of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission, dysregulated intracellular signalling and activation of pro-inflammatory immune and glial cells. In the past 15 years, multiple miRNAs-small non-coding RNA-have emerged as regulators of neuropathic pain development. They act by binding to target mRNAs and...

  • The Role of the Insular Cortex in Pain
    by Charalampos Labrakakis on 29 Marzo 2023

    The transition from normal to chronic pain is believed to involve alterations in several brain areas that participate in the perception of pain. These plastic changes are then responsible for aberrant pain perception and comorbidities. The insular cortex is consistently found activated in pain studies of normal and chronic pain patients. Functional changes in the insula contribute to chronic pain; however, the complex mechanisms by which the insula is involved in pain perception under normal and...

  • Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Nociceptive Condition Comorbid with Neuropathic or Nociplastic Pain
    by César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas on 29 Marzo 2023

    Myofascial pain syndrome is featured by the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Whether TrPs are primary or secondary phenomena or if they relate to central or peripheral nervous system disorders is controversial. Referred pain, a cardinal sign of TrPs, is a central phenomenon driven by peripheral input. In 2021, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) proposed a clinical criteria and grading system for classifying patients with pain on nociceptive, neuropathic, or...

  • Exploring Neural Mechanisms of Reward Processing Using Coupled Matrix Tensor Factorization: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Investigation
    by Yuchao Liu on 29 Marzo 2023

    CONCLUSION: This work sheds light on the reward-processing progress, provides a deeper understanding of brain function, and opens a new avenue in the investigation of neurovascular coupling via CMTF.

  • Preventive Gambling Programs for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review
    by Alicia Monreal-Bartolomé on 29 Marzo 2023

    Gambling disorder in youth is an emerging public health problem, with adolescents and young adults constituting a vulnerable age group for the development of gambling-related problems. Although research has been conducted on the risk factors for gambling disorder, very few rigorous studies can be found on the efficacy of preventive interventions in young people. The aim of this study was to provide best practice recommendations for the prevention of disordered gambling in adolescents and young...

  • Premorbid Personality Traits as Risk Factors for Behavioral Addictions: A Systematic Review of a Vulnerability Hypothesis
    by Daniela Smirni on 29 Marzo 2023

    The debate on personality structure and behavioral addictions is an outstanding issue. According to some authors, behavioral addictions could arise from a premorbid personality, while for others, it could result from a pathological use of technological tools. The current study aims to investigate whether, in the latest literature, personality traits have been identified as predictors of behavioral addictions. A literature search was conducted under the PRISMA methodology, considering the most...

  • Transdiagnostic Connectome-Based Prediction of Craving
    by Kathleen A Garrison on 29 Marzo 2023

    CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a transdiagnostic perspective to a key phenomenological feature of addictive disorders-craving-and identify a common "craving network" across individuals with and without substance use-related disorders, thereby suggesting a neural signature for craving or urge for motivated behaviors.

  • Nanoscale friction of biomimetic hair surfaces
    by Erik Weiand on 29 Marzo 2023

    We investigate the nanoscale friction between biomimetic hair surfaces using chemical colloidal probe atomic force microscopy experiments and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In the experiments, friction is measured between water-lubricated silica surfaces functionalised with monolayers formed from either octadecyl or sulfonate groups, which are representative of the surfaces of virgin and ultimately bleached hair, respectively. In the simulations, friction is monitored between...

  • Cancer surveillance as an alternative to prophylactic total gastrectomy in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study
    by Bilal Asif on 29 Marzo 2023

    BACKGROUND: Loss of function variants in CDH1 are the most frequent cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Endoscopy is regarded as insufficient for early detection due to the infiltrative phenotype of diffuse-type cancers. Microscopic foci of invasive signet ring cells are pathognomonic of CDH1 and precede development of diffuse gastric cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of endoscopy for cancer interception in individuals with germline CDH1 variants, particularly in...

  • Non-Invasive Electric and Magnetic Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia
    by Andrés Molero-Chamizo on 29 Marzo 2023

    Although fibromyalgia is defined by its core muscular nociceptive component, it also includes multiple dysfunctions that involve the musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine, as well as the central and peripheral nervous systems, amongst others. The pathogenic involvement of the nervous system and the numerous neurological and neuroinflammatory symptoms of this disease may benefit from neuromodulatory stimulation techniques that have been shown to be effective and safe in diverse...

  • Neural correlates of control over pain in fibromyalgia patients
    by Benjamin Mosch on 27 Febbraio 2023

    The perceived lack of control over the experience of pain is arguably-one major cause of agony and impaired life quality in patients with chronic pain disorders as fibromyalgia (FM). The way perceived control affects subjective pain as well as the underlying neural mechanisms have so far not been investigated in chronic pain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural correlates of self-controlled compared to computer-controlled heat pain in healthy controls (HC,...

  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with fibromyalgia: A protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis
    by Yangyang Wang on 1 Dicembre 2022

    CONCLUSION: This study will provide systematic support of evidence-based medicine for TMS in fibromyalgia, integrate the results of direct and indirect comparisons of the efficacy of different rTMS protocol, and provide the best one.

  • Motor cortex inhibition as a fibromyalgia biomarker: a meta-analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation studies
    by Kevin Pacheco-Barrios on 18 Luglio 2022

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common and refractory chronic pain condition with multiple clinical phenotypes. The current diagnosis is based on a syndrome identification which can be subjective and lead to under or over-diagnosis. Therefore, there is a need for objective biomarkers for diagnosis, phenotyping, and prognosis (treatment response and follow-up) in fibromyalgia. Potential biomarkers are measures of cortical excitability indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, no...

  • New updates on transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic pain
    by Ana Mércia Fernandes on 31 Maggio 2022

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic pain is the most prevalent symptomatic disease worldwide. Nonpharmacological interventions, such as noninvasive neuromodulation (NIN), have gained scientific evidence to support their use as an add-on strategy to pharmacological pain management. The most studied NIN technique is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This review aims to identify the current indications for rTMS in the treatment of chronic pain and its new perspectives.

  • The Concept, Development, and Application of a Home-Based High-Definition tDCS for Bilateral Motor Cortex Modulation in Migraine and Pain
    by Alexandre F DaSilva on 17 Marzo 2022

    Whereas, many debilitating chronic pain disorders are dominantly bilateral (e.g., fibromyalgia, chronic migraine), non-invasive and invasive cortical neuromodulation therapies predominantly apply unilateral stimulation. The development of excitatory stimulation targeting bilateral primary motor (M1) cortices could potentially expand its therapeutic effect to more global pain relief. However, this is hampered by increased procedural and technical complexity. For example, repetitive transcranial...