• Electric field modeling in personalizing TMS interventions
    by Moritz Dannhauer on 7 Dicembre 2023

    The modeling of TMS-induced electric fields (E-fields) serves as a versatile technique for evaluating and refining brain targeting and dosing strategies, while also providing insights into dose-response relationships in the brain. This review outlines the methodologies employed to derive E-field estimations, covering TMS physics, modeling assumptions, and aspects of subject-specific head tissue and coil modeling. We also summarize various numerical methods for solving the E-field, and their...

  • Movement predictability modulates sensorimotor processing
    by Miriam Altermatt on 6 Dicembre 2023

    INTRODUCTION: An important factor for optimal sensorimotor control is how well we are able to predict sensory feedback from internal and external sources during movement. If predictability decreases due to external disturbances, the brain is able to adjust muscle activation and the filtering of incoming sensory inputs. However, little is known about sensorimotor adjustments when predictability is increased by availability of additional internal feedback. In the present study we investigated how...

  • TMS disruption of the lateral prefrontal cortex increases neural activity in the default mode network when naming facial expressions
    by David Pitcher on 4 Dicembre 2023

    Recognizing facial expressions is dependent on multiple brain networks specialized for different cognitive functions. In the current study, participants (N = 20) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while they performed a covert facial expression naming task. Immediately prior to scanning thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered over the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or the vertex control site. A group whole-brain analysis revealed...

  • Induction of excitatory brain state governs plastic functional changes in visual cortical topology
    by Ulf T Eysel on 2 Dicembre 2023

    Adult visual plasticity underlying local remodeling of the cortical circuitry in vivo appears to be associated with a spatiotemporal pattern of strongly increased spontaneous and evoked activity of populations of cells. Here we review and discuss pioneering work by us and others about principles of plasticity in the adult visual cortex, starting with our study which showed that a confined lesion in the cat retina causes increased excitability in the affected region in the primary visual cortex...

  • Considerable effects of lateralization and aging in intracortical excitation and inhibition
    by Zhongfei Bai on 30 Novembre 2023

    CONCLUSION: Lateralization and aging have independent and significant effects on intracortical excitation and inhibition in healthy adults. The functional decline of excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the M1 is associated with aging.

  • Application of transcranial brain stimulation in dementia
    by Yuncin Luo on 30 Novembre 2023

    The number of patients with dementia grows rapidly as the global population ages, which posits tremendous health-care burden to the society. Only cholinesterase inhibitors and a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist have been approved for treating patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and their clinical effects remained limited. Medical devices serve as an alternative therapeutic approach to modulating neural activities and enhancing cognitive function. Four major brain stimulation...

  • Detection of Factors Related to the Development of Osteochondritis Dissecans in Youth Baseball Players Screening
    by Shotaro Teruya on 9 Dicembre 2023

    On-field screening for 'elbow injury in baseball', a condition commonly seen in youth baseball players, was conducted over two years on 160 elementary school students in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. This on-field screening was conducted in collaboration with the Ibaraki Prefecture High School Baseball Federation. Pitchers, catchers, symptomatic players, and players who had previously experienced elbow pain were given a comprehensive evaluation that included a physical exam and ultrasound. Out of...

  • The Parallel Pandemic: A Systematic Review on the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on OCD among Children and Adolescents
    by Nasong A Luginaah on 8 Dicembre 2023

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the accompanying social changes severely impacted mental health globally. Children and adolescents may have been vulnerable to adverse mental health outcomes, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), due to their underdeveloped resilience and coping skills stemming from their progressing physical and psychological development. Few studies have explored the parallels between the pandemic and OCD trends in this population. This systematic review aims to identify...

  • Implicit aggressive self-concept in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from an approach-avoidance task
    by Josefine Gehlenborg on 8 Dicembre 2023

    CONCLUSION: The present study supports previous studies reporting the absence of higher aggressiveness in patients with OCD compared to healthy controls using implicit measures. However, in contrast to previous studies, we found an implicit approach bias towards aggressive self-statements for OCD patients scoring high in the symptom dimensions obsessing and hoarding compared to healthy controls. Future studies should further elucidate putative functional relationships between different OCD...

  • Analysis of orbitofacial anthropometry in children with pseudostrabismus
    by V Kavitha on 7 Dicembre 2023

    CONCLUSION: This study helps in documenting the anthropometric pattern of the orbitofacial parameters in children with pseudostrabismus which can act as reference data. This helps in the management of orbitofacial, craniofacial syndromes/deformities and lid reconstructive surgeries in retaining ethnical features and obtaining better function. In children's spectacle frame 1 and lens making, where measuring IPD is difficult, cIPD can be a simple alternative.

  • Predictors of EX/RP alone versus EX/RP with medication for adults with OCD: does medication status moderate outcomes?
    by Michael G Wheaton on 6 Dicembre 2023

    Exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) can be delivered as monotherapy or to augment serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). While both options are considered effective OCD treatments, responses are heterogenous. Substantial work has investigated EX/RP predictors to account for this variability in responses, with mixed findings. Little research has studied whether EX/RP predictors may differ in medicated versus non-medicated samples (i.e., medication status as a moderator). We pooled data from...

  • Hyperconnecitivity between dorsal attention and frontoparietal networks predicts treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder
    by Hasan Bakay on 6 Dicembre 2023

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presented with repetitive obsessions and/or compulsions were associated with disrupted resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). To investigate the pharmacological treatment effect on rs-FC changes in OCD patients we conducted the seed-to-voxel FC analyses using dorsal attention network (DAN), default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and frontoparietal network (FPN) and basal ganglia seeds. Twenty-two healthy subjects and twenty-four unmedicated...

  • Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Anti-CGRP mAbs on Migraineurs: Analysis of the First Year of Therapy, 1-Month Suspension Period, and Reprisal
    by Yan Tereshko on 9 Dicembre 2023

    Background: Few studies compare the clinical effectiveness of the three anti-CGRP mAbs. Moreover, no studies compare their efficacy during suspension and reprisal. Our study aimed to compare the efficacy of migraine frequency, intensity, and symptomatic medication intake during the first year of therapy, a 1-month suspension period, and a 3-month drug reprisal. Methods: A total of 160 migraineurs (chronic and high-frequency episodic) were treated with anti-CGRP mAbs (49 with fremanezumab, 55...

  • Exploring Facial Thermography Patterns in Women with Chronic Migraine
    by Bruno Veloso Fracasso on 9 Dicembre 2023

    (1) Background: Chronic migraine is a debilitating neurological condition affecting millions worldwide. This study delves into the facial point-of-care (POC) thermographic patterns of women with chronic migraine, aiming to shed light on the condition's pathophysiology and diagnostic potential. (2) Methods: Using infrared POC thermography, the facial temperature distribution of 24 female participants with chronic migraine were analyzed. (3) Results: The findings revealed significant temperature...

  • Diamine Oxidase Interactions with Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Migraine Medicines in the Treatment of Migraine
    by Yaiza Tobajas on 9 Dicembre 2023

    Histamine intolerance arises when there is a disparity between the production of histamine and the body's ability to break it down. In the gastrointestinal tract, the primary enzyme responsible for metabolizing ingested histamine is diamine oxidase (DAO), and a shortage of this enzyme has been associated with some diseases related to the respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, and digestive systems, in addition to migraines. The treatment of migraines typically revolves around the...

  • The Ketogenic Diet in the Prevention of Migraines in the Elderly
    by Michal Fila on 9 Dicembre 2023

    Migraines display atypical age dependence, as the peak of their prevalence occurs between the ages of 20-40 years. With age, headache attacks occur less frequently and are characterized by a lower amplitude. However, both diagnosis and therapy of migraines in the elderly are challenging due to multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. Dietary components and eating habits are migraine triggers; therefore, nutrition is a main target in migraine prevention. Several kinds of diets were proposed to...

  • Ion Channel Disturbances in Migraine Headache: Exploring the Potential Role of the Kynurenine System in the Context of the Trigeminovascular System
    by Eleonóra Spekker on 9 Dicembre 2023

    Migraine is a primary headache disorder, which is an enormous burden to the healthcare system. While some aspects of the pathomechanism of migraines remain unknown, the most accepted theory is that activation and sensitization of the trigeminovascular system are essential during migraine attacks. In recent decades, it has been suggested that ion channels may be important participants in the pathogenesis of migraine. Numerous ion channels are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous...

  • Dopaminergic Projections from the Hypothalamic A11 Nucleus to the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus Are Involved in Bidirectional Migraine Modulation
    by Chenhao Li on 9 Dicembre 2023

    Clinical imaging studies have revealed that the hypothalamus is activated in migraine patients prior to the onset of and during headache and have also shown that the hypothalamus has increased functional connectivity with the spinal trigeminal nucleus. The dopaminergic system of the hypothalamus plays an important role, and the dopamine-rich A11 nucleus may play an important role in migraine pathogenesis. We used intraperitoneal injections of glyceryl trinitrate to establish a model of acute...