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- Neural Correlates of Delay Discounting in the Light of Brain Imaging and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: What We Know and What Is Missedby Andrea Stefano Moro on 29 Marzo 2023
In decision making, the subjective value of a reward declines with the delay to its receipt, describing a hyperbolic function. Although this phenomenon, referred to as delay discounting (DD), has been extensively characterized and reported in many animal species, still, little is known about the neuronal processes that support it. Here, after drawing a comprehensive portrait, we consider the latest neuroimaging and lesion studies, the outcomes of which often appear contradictory among comparable...
- TMS-Induced Modulation of EEG Functional Connectivity Is Affected by the E-Field Orientationby Giulia Pieramico on 29 Marzo 2023
Coregistration of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) allows non-invasive probing of brain circuits: TMS induces brain activation due to the generation of a properly oriented focused electric field (E-field) using a coil placed on a selected position over the scalp, while EEG captures the effects of the stimulation on brain electrical activity. Moreover, the combination of these techniques allows the investigation of several brain properties, including brain...
- Functional Activity in the Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Therapy for Patients with Depression: A Meta-Analysisby Yongyan Deng on 29 Marzo 2023
Depression is a long-lasting mental disorder that affects more than 264 million people worldwide. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be a safe and effective choice for the treatment of depression. Functional neuroimaging provides unique insights into the neuropsychiatric effects of antidepressant TMS. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the functional activity of brain regions caused by TMS for depression. A literature search was conducted from inception to 5 January 2022. Studies...
- Transcranial Stimulation for the Treatment of Stimulant Use Disorderby Amber N Edinoff on 28 Marzo 2023
The increasing prevalence of stimulant use disorder (StUD) involving methamphetamine and cocaine has been a growing healthcare concern in the United States. Cocaine usage is associated with atherosclerosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and arrhythmias. Furthermore, approximately one of every four MIs is cocaine-induced among patients aged 18 to 45. Methamphetamine use has been associated with nerve terminal damage in the dopaminergic system resulting in impaired motor function, cognitive...
- Non-Pharmacological Treatments in Lewy Body Disease: A Systematic Reviewby Lucia Guidi on 28 Marzo 2023
CONCLUSION: This review highlights the efficacy of some evidence-based rehabilitation studies in LBD; however, further randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed to provide definitive recommendations.
- Optimizing transcranial magnetic stimulation for spaceflight applicationsby S M Romanella on 28 Marzo 2023
As space agencies aim to reach and build installations on Mars, the crews will face longer exposure to extreme environments that may compromise their health and performance. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a painless non-invasive brain stimulation technique that could support space exploration in multiple ways. However, changes in brain morphology previously observed after long-term space missions may impact the efficacy of this intervention. We investigated how to optimize TMS for...
- Intersession Reliability of Quadriceps Corticospinal Excitability: A Functional Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Studyby Kiana M Young on 27 Marzo 2023
Recording transcranial magnetic stimulation-derived measures during a closed kinetic chain task can serve as a functional technique to assess corticomotor function, which may have implications for activities of daily living or lower extremity injury in physically active individuals. Given the novelty of TMS use in this way, our purpose was to first determine the intersession reliability of quadriceps corticospinal excitability during a single-leg squat. We used a descriptive laboratory study to...
- Untangling TMS-EEG responses caused by TMS versus sensory input using optimized sham control and GABAergic challengeby Pedro C Gordon on 25 Marzo 2023
The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) elegantly probes excitability and connectivity of the human brain. However, TMS-EEG signals inevitably also contain sensory evoked responses caused by TMS-associated auditory and somatosensory inputs, constituting a substantial confounding factor. Here we applied our recently established optimized SHAM protocol (Gordon et al., Neuroimage 2021:118708) to disentangle TMS-EEG responses caused by TMS vs....
- An agile, data-driven approach for target selection in rTMS therapy for anxiety symptoms: Proof of concept and preliminary data for two novel targetsby Isabella M Young on 23 Marzo 2023
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a left-lateralized DMN is likely the primary functional network disturbed in anxiety-related disorders, which can be improved by identifying and targeting abnormal regions with a rapid, data-driven, agile aTBS treatment on an individualized basis.
- Neuromodulation for treatment-resistant depression: Functional network targets contributing to antidepressive outcomesby Shaquia L Idlett-Ali on 20 Marzo 2023
Non-invasive brain stimulation is designed to target accessible brain regions that underlie many psychiatric disorders. One such method, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is commonly used in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, for non-responders, the choice of an alternative therapy is unclear and often decided empirically without detailed knowledge of precise circuit dysfunction. This is also true of invasive therapies, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), in...
- Can visual cortex non-invasive brain stimulation improve normal visual function? A systematic review and meta-analysisby Umar M Bello on 20 Marzo 2023
CONCLUSION: There are significant effects of visual cortex tES on contrast sensitivity, VEP amplitude, an index of cortical excitability, and crowding among normally sighted individuals. Additional studies are required to enable a comparable meta-analysis of TMS effects. Future studies with robust experimental designs are needed to extend these findings to populations with vision loss.
- Depression core network-based individualized targeting for transcranial magnetic stimulationby Tuukka T Raij on 17 Marzo 2023
CONCLUSIONS: CNM increased repeatability of functional targeting to a clinically feasible level. The observed association of MDD severity and TMS efficacy with DLPFC connectivity supports the validity of the CNM. The interindividual differences in target locations motivate future individualized clinical trials leveraging the CNM.
- Behavioral and Functional Brain Activity Alterations Induced by TMS Coils with Different Spatial Distributionsby Gaby S Pell on 17 Marzo 2023
Previous investigation of cognitive processes using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have explored the response to different stimulation parameters such as frequency and coil location. In this study, we attempt to add another parameter by exploiting the spatial profiles of TMS coils to infer regional information concerning reward-related behavior.We used different TMS coils to modulate activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and examined resulting changes in behavior and associated brain...
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical oscillations and improve cognition in obstructive sleep apnea patientsby Xiaoxiao Han on 16 Marzo 2023
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings indicate that TMS can safely modulate cortical oscillations and improve cognition in OSA patients. In the future, TMS can be utilized as an alternative treatment option to improve cognition in OSA patients.
- Effects of intermittent theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognition and hippocampal volumes in bipolar depressionby Ivan J Torres on 16 Marzo 2023
CONCLUSIONS: Although cognitive improvements were not associated with iTBS, the finding that hippocampal volume increases were associated with memory improvement suggests there may be some level of prefrontal-temporal neuroplasticity that could support cognitive change in future studies of iTBS in bipolar disorder.